Size; rather large often robust species, often covered with rather sense and strong setulae  body length 4-6mm. Body colour black without metallic blue or bronze reflections. Lunule bare, dark, satin ground colour. Frons black, or with lateral pollinosity, interfrontal and frontal setulae often long. Compound eye densely pilose in many males to bare in some females. Parafacials very braod, often debsely silver pollinose,  genae very broad and strongly setulose. Antennae black and small, 1st flagellomere approx. 2x as long as broad. Face without facial carina (central keel) but antennal fovea (sockets) rather deep. 

Thorax with dense erect setulae and strong setae, setulae usually extending posteriorly onto pre-scutellar area between the base of the scutellum and the strong thoracic setae. Usually several humeral setae. Anepisternum without strong anterodorsal setae but with a few setulae in this position, 5-6 strong posterior setae. A cluster of setulae on proepimeron. Katepisternum with several strong setae and numerous setulae. Anepimeron and prosternum bare. Scutellum with numerous setulae in addition to the 4 scutellar setae; the margins with several setulae positioned anterior to the lateral setae. Calypteres white with pale margins and fringes. Wings whitish or creamy yellow, veins yellow. Legs and tarsomeres entirely black.

Abdomen broad, black with light grey dusting. Male with 6th tergite absent, 5th tergite with a row of 5-7 stubby spines posteriorly. 6th sternite symmetrical, bare. Surstyli largely enclosed within epandrium, posterior lobe with several strong prensisetae. Cerci fused and sclerotized apically. Phallus short with semi-membranous basal section.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith