Draft key to the European Lonchaea species

This is a first attempt to create a key to the 60 European Lonchaea species building on the work which was done on the 32 British Isles species. The key works best for males but some female identification is possible - I will add more illustrations in time  - sorry the hyperlinks dont work!!

Lonchaea

1.  Eyes distinctly hairy, hairs longer than width of ommatidium  ………………………….…  2   

–   Eyes bare or practically bare   ...……………………………………………….…………...  7

2.  Anterior genal setae in a uniserial row along the mouth margin  …………………………...  3        

–   Anterior genal setae not confined to a single rows but in multiple rows or widely spread   ………   4 Multiple genal setulae

3   Wing with intercostal section greatly exceeding the maximum width of the costal cell, costa bare - without small black spinules …………………………………….. hirticeps Zetterstedt  (boreal) 

–   Wing with intercostal section about half the maximum width of the costal cell, costa usually with numerous small black spinules    ………………………………..…………   corusca Czerny

4.  Legs with all tarsomeres entirely black dorsally AND ventrally    ………….………...………… 5  

 –  At least some tarsomeres yellow or brown (check carefully under basal tarsomeres of hind leg )  ........... 6

5.  Wing with “depth” of intercostal space approx. 25% of its length. One or occasionally two or three stigmatical setae. scutellar disc with only a few setulae.  Male genitalia: epandrium without any posteroventral process.    ……………………………………………..  iona  MacGowan  

–   Wing with “depth” of intercostal space approx. 15% of its length. Usually more than three stigmatical setae, scutellar disc covered in setulae. Male genitalia: epandrium with a distinct posteroventral rounded process.  ……………………….….   fraxina MacGowan and Rotheray   L. fraxina intercostal section

6.  Legs with basal tarsomeres only orange-yellow ventrally, otherwise dark.  Setulae present in notopleural depression, Face and genae grey.  ……….………..……………..   albigena Collin  

–  Legs with basal two or three tarsomeres clearly orange-yellow. Notopleural depression bare. ..... nitens (Bigot) 

7.   Anterior genal setae multiserial      ………………………………….…………...…….…...  8 

–   Anterior genal setae confined to a single row   ……………………………………….. …   15

8.   Usually only one stigmatical setae present. ………………………………….……………..  9

–    A few well developed stigmatical setae present   ……………………..…………………    12

9.  Males : Hind femora without long anterodorsal setae. Genitalia: cerci not greatly elongated ...  10

–   Males : Hind femora with several long anterodorsal setae. Genitalia: cerci elongate ……….   11

10. Genitalia: Aedeagus not segmented, cerci large and triangular ………………..… tarsata Fallen

–    Genitalia: Aedeagus two segmented, cerci rectangular    …………………    spp nov.

11.  Foreleg with basal tarsomere longer than the tibia. Genitalia: aedeagus obviously in two parts, apical part sinuous  ………………………………………..…   longitarsis MacGowan (Israel)

–     Foreleg with basal tarsomere not longer than the tibia. Genitalia: aedeagus only partially    separated, apical part not sinuous  ……………………………   setifemora MacGowan  (Spain)

12.  Tarsomeres almost entirely dark, at most hind basal tarsomere brownish ventrally. One well developed and a few weaker stigmatical setae present, scutellum with a few setulae on the disc. Male genitalia:  aedeagus consisting of a central tube with two serrated lateral processes ……………………………….   hyalipennis Zetterstedt

     Tarsomeres more obviously yellow, male genitalia not as above ………………………….   13

13.  Scutellum with disc setulose AND with setulae on the margin anterior to the strong lateral setae. Legs with several tarsomeres yellow  …………………………….…………………….……. 14 

–  Scutellum with disc setulose but setulae NOT present on margin anterior to the strong lateral setae; four (1 stout and three hairlike) stigmatical setae,  basal tarsomeres of front and hind legs with dark setulae on the ventral surface. Male with strongly curved apical section to aedeagus ……..… vagans Kovalev (= patens ??)

14.  Usually up to 7 well developed stigmatical setae. Basal and second tarsomeres yellow. Anterior genal setae obviously multiserial.  Male genitalia – cerci large, aedeagus with apical section not sinuous ……………………………………………………………………….    .patens Collin

– Approximately 12 stigmatical setae. Only basal tarsomeres yellow. Anterior genal setae only partly multiserial. Male genitalia – cerci small, aedeagus with a sinuous apical section ….……………………………….. germanica MacGowan

15.  Legs with tarsomeres entirely black or darkened .……………………………………..…...  16      

–    Tarsomeres partly pale, check carefully under basal tarsomeres of hind leg!!  ……………..  34

16   Calypteres with fringes pale  ..............…………………………………….……….………    17

 –    Calypteres with fringes dark  ... ………………………………………….……………….…   33

17.    Males: (frons relatively narrow and tip of abdomen usually with obvious genital capsule)    ...….......... 18

–    Females: frons wide  and lance-like aculeus usually visible at tip of abdomen  (The females of L. difficilis and L. andrei are unknown) ……………………………………………………   27

18.   Genitalia : epandrium elongate or very elongate, at least twice as high as it is wide …….…  19 

–     Genitalia :  epandrium of a normal shape, not greatly higher than wide   ………………….   20

19.        Epandrium twice as high as it is broad with a long, slender basal projection. Thoracic disc and pleurae highly polished. Aedeagus with apical part long, three and a half times as long as the base, …………………………………………………………………   carpathica Kovalev

–        Epandrium three times as high as it is broad, easily seen extending beyond tip of abdomen in mounted specimens   Aedeagus  with apical part shorter, no more than two and a half times as long as the base   ……………………..………………………………..   contraria  Czerny

20.        Surstyli with  posterio-ventral processes which extend well beyond the margins of the epandrium   ……  21  

 –        Surstyli without obvious, projecting, posteroventral processes.  ………………………. 22

21.      More than one stigmatical setae, orbital plates bearing setulae. Aedeagus with apical part tube-like, long and straight     …………………………………..………………..    corusca Czerny 

–          One stigmatical setae, orbital plates bare, aedeagus with apical part very short…  postica Collin

22        Aedeagus two segmented or deeply incised at base of apical portion, setulae present on scutellar margin between the two strong apical setae.  Disc of thorax partly or entirelly dulled by microscopic dusting  ….…..…   23

–        Aedeagus not segmented or incised ……………………………..  …………………….  25

23        Antennal postpedicellus at least 1.7 times as long as it is deep. First abdominal sternite bare …………. 24

–          Antennal postpedicellus, hardly longer than wide. First abdominal sternite pol­linose except along hind margin, with one or sev­eral setulae on each side. Katepisternum with at least one setulae posterior to the strong setae. Male: aedeagus two-seg­mented; epandrium almost as long as high in side view ..………   difficilis Hackman

24        Antennal postpedicellus twice as long as deep, almost always several setulae posterior to the strong katepisternal setae, thoracic disc evenly covered in brownish pollen. ………...chorea (Fabricus)

 –         Antennal postpedicellus  approximately 1.7 times as long as deep, only at most one setulae posterior to the katepisternal setae, thoracic disc with a large spot devoid of pollen on each side of centre line.. andrei Kovalev

25        Surstylus ventrally extending beyond shell of epandrium, with an obvious notch on ventral margin,  aedeagus a simple U-shape, setulae present on scutellar margin between the two strong apical setae   .…………………………………………………..…….   . contigua Collin

–      Surstylus not extending ventrally beyond epandrium, no setulae on scutellar margin between the two strong apical setae, aedeagus with small teeth or serrations …...………….…..  26.

26.        Aedeagus long and slender with only a few small spicules basally….. caucasica  Kovalev

–      Aedeagus rather short and broad and broadened at base with obvious serrations along its length   ………………………….……………... …………………….  . limatula Collin

27        Apical section of aculeus with dorsal setulae, these longer than apical segment, situated half way along its length, Setulae on frontal orbits above orbital setae, more than one stigmatical setae    ……………  corusca Czerny  

–            Apical section of aculeus without long dorsal setulae half way along   ……………….   28

28        Apical section of aculeus with dorsal setulae at base at least half as long as the segment   …………...    29

–        Apical section of aculeus with at most only tiny dorsal setulae situated basally   …..……  32

29        No setulae posterior to the strong katepisternal setae. Disc of thorax brightly shining. Apical segment of aculeus in dorsal view long and narrow, length approx. twice its breadth …......................    30

–         Setulae present posterior to katepisternal setae. Disc of thorax dulled by dusting. Apical segment of aculeus in dorsal view shorter and broader, length approx. 1.5x breadth   ………………………..…..   chorea(Fabricus) 

 

30        Scutellar margin with only 1 setulae between apical and lateral setae  .........…  carpathica Kovalev

–       Scutellar margin with several setulae between apical and lateral setae ……….……    31

31       Scutellum, on margin, with at least three setulae between the two strong apical setae ……....  contraria

–      Scutellum, on margin, with 0 – 2 setulae between the two strong apical setae   ……………...   contigua

32        Anepisternum and katepisternum entirely dulled by microscopic dust  ……............ postica  

–       Anepisternum and katepisternum brightly polished      ……................. limatula / caucasica

33        *(check for post stigmaticals!  sylvatica and deutschi can be confused with Dasiops spp.)

No setulae on orbital plates above orbital setae. Antennal; postpedicellus more than 1.5 times longer than deep. Intercostal section measured between insertions of Sc and R1 less than twice length of cross vein r-m. Apical section of female aculeus, on dorsal surface, with one pair of long strong setae situated mid way along the segment. Male aedeagus with apical section as long as the basal part. ……………………………….…….    sylvatica  Beling

–      Setulae usually present on orbital plates above orbital setae, (can be absent in some females). Antennal postpedicellus less than 1.5 times as long as deep. Apical segment of female aculeus with longest dorsal setulae situated basally, Male aedeagus with apical section very short.  …… deutschi  Zetterstedt  (Boreal)                  

34        Palpi extraordinarily long projecting far beyond front margin of mouth. All tarsomeres except apical bright yellow. One stigmatical setae. Aedeagus two segmented.   ……............................ palposaZetterstedt 

–         Palpi of  normal size   ...............………………………………………………..…...   35

35         Calypteres with fringes pale or yellowish   ……….………………………………..…..      36

–           Calypteres with fringes with at least some dark setulae present   …………………………  55

36         Calypter fringes containing a group of longer setulae centrally, tarsomeres mainly yellow, only apical segment slightly darkened dorsally, Inner surface of antennal postpedicellus usually orange at  base   ………………………………………….………… collini Hackman

–           Calypter fringes of uniform length     ………………………………..…….…………...    37

37         Several stigmatical setae    …….…………………………………….……………...…… 38

–        One stigmatical setae   …………………………………………………………………… 45

38         Orbital plates bare, rarely (palpata) with one or more setulae above the orbital setae  First abdominal sternum entirely clothed in setulae .…………………………………….…     39

–          Orbital plates with setulae above orbital setae. First abdominal sternite mainly bare, at most with a few setulae at lateral margins ……………….………………………..…………  41 

39        Anepimeron usually with 1-3 setulae.  ……………………………………..………….   41

–                Anepimeron bare  ……………………………………..……….…………………. …..  40

40       3 -7 stigmatical setae ………………………………………………    palpata  Czerny

Only two or three stigmatical setae, scutellar margin with no setulae anterior to lateral setae ..  bukowskii  Czerny

41        Usually several small black spinules present on costal vein between junction of R1 and R2+3.  Scutellum with marginal setulae usually forming an irregular multiserial row, usually more than 4 setulae between the apical setae and with setulae present anterior to the lateral setae Basal, second and third tarsomeres yellow   …………….…………  hackmani  Kovalev

–       No spinules on costal vein.   Scutellum with marginal setulae in a uniserial row with 4 or less setulae between apical setae, no setulae anterior of lateral setae.  Basal and second tarsomeres yellow,  third and subsequent tarsomeres usually dark ……………...  peregrina  Becker

 

42       Basal tarsomeres obviously clear yellow on dorsal surface  …………………………..    43

 –       Basal tarsomeres darkened dorsally, antennal postpedicellus three times as long as deep .   …..……..  44

43      First sternite with setulae present on the lateral margins. Antennal postpedicellus more than twice as long as deep usually entirelly black. Male aedeagus rounded basally.  Setulae present on orbital plates …………………………………….………….……. subneatosa Kovalev

–        First sternite bare. Antennal postpedicellus hardly more than one and a half times as long as deep, occasionally orange internally at base.  Male aedeagus rather angular basally. Setulae on orbital plate present or absent.  …………………………………….…….   . freyi Czerny 

 

44    Stigmatical setulae (not setae!) numerous and thin. Setulae present on orbital plates above orbital setae. Notopleural depression with setulae in addition to the setae. Scutellar margin with additional lateral setae and with setulae anterior to lateral setae …………. ragnari  Hackman

45      Anepimeron with a single setulae anteriorly. Katepisternum bare centrally, with a few erect setulae above; one of these setulae, slightly in front of the strong setae, is only slightly thinner and shorter than it. All basal tarsomeres yellow, and second tarsomere on hind leg dark yellow with black setulae as a result appearing darkened above. Large species body length over 5.0 mm   ………………………….……………… xylophila  Kovalev

–        Anepimeron bare, generally smaller species   ……………………………………... 46

46      Setulae present on the orbital plates above the orbital setae …………………………….. 47

–        Usually no setulae on orbital plates (occasionally one present on one side)  ……..…....    50

47      Scutellar margin bare between apical setae (occasionally one or two tiny setulae in this position). Two basal tarsomeres yellow. Pleurae brightly shining. Apical section of female aculeus with two very long, pale dorso-basal setulae  …………….....   zetterstedti  Becker

 –       Setulae present between the two apical setae on scutellum. ……………………..…..  48

48      Antennae entirely black. Parafacials (between eye margin and face) almost linear. Setulae present posterior to strong katepisternal setae. Apical section of aedeagus slender and sinuous with no spicules …………………………………………….……...    defecta McAlpine 

–        Second antennal segment usually conspicuously orange brown as  is the inner base of the antennal postpedicellus, parafacials broader   ……………………………….…..…     49

49      Katepisternum with several setulae posterior to the strong setae. Male genitalia with apical segment of aedeagus covered in scale-like spicules …………..……... ipsiphaga McAlpine 

–        Katepisternum without setulae posterior to the strong setae. Male genitalia; aedeagus without spicules. …………………………………………………………….…..….  seitneri Hendel 

50.   Antennal postpedicellus with a rust-red area at inner base. Face with a silvery lustre ventrally. Male epandrium almost twice as high as wide, aedeagus without apical lobes. Female aculeus  narrowed near tip and with a long intermediate sclerite ventrally between the 9th sternites and the apical segment  ..……………….   nitidissima Kovalev

–        Antennal postpedicellus entirelly black  ………….…………………………………..  51

51.      Tarsomeres entirely pale. First sternite with a few setulae at margins. Male aedeagus with apical section longer than basal section, not broadening significantly at apex. No "ligament" visible. Female aculeus similar to scutellaris . …………………………...  fugax  Becker

–        At least apical tarsomeres darkened.   ………………………………………………….. 52

52       First sternite with setulae at margins.  Only basal tarsomere pale, usually deep orange. Antennal postpedicellus twice as long as it is wide ………………..   krivosheinae  Kovalev

 –        First sternite  bare  …………………………………………………………..………….  53

53        Male epandrium higher than wide. Antennal postpedicellus at most 1.5x as long as wide. Only basal and at most ventral surface of second tarsomere yellow. Male aedeagus with apical section as long as basal section, broadening towards tip, basal section with an obvious "ligament". Female aculeus similar to fugax  ……………………....    scutellaris   Rondani

  –        Male epandrium only as high as it is wide    …………………………………………  54

54         Male aedeagus divided into several apical processes. Katepisternum strongly polished blue black on disc. Male frons wider than depth of antennal postpedicellus ………………………………………………………………………….  bruggeri Morge

Thorax light blue-black, weakly shiny, with brown­ish pollen; a large spot devoid of pollen on each side of the scutum, its outer margin forming a tongue-like pro­jection nearly reaching the lateral margin of the scutum immediately in front of the transverse suture; spots separated by a pollen band along median line of scutum The marginal hairs of the scutellum. do not form an even row, but are not shifted onto the disc of the scutellum Antennae unicolorous black; length of 3rd segment 1.7 times its width, anterior margin straight ………………………………………………………….…         andrei Kovalev

55        Antennal postpedicellus short, only about twice as long as deep. Only basal tarsomere and at most ventral surface of second tarsomere yellow.  Male genitalia elongate, ….………………………….  scutellaris Rondani  

–          Length of antennal postpedicellus more than twice its depth, characters not as above  ……………….…    56

56         Scutellum with setulae all over dorsal surface, notopleural depression with or without setulae. ……………………………………………………………………………….……..…   57  

Disc of scutellum bare, a few setulae may be present  just above strong setae, never any setulae in the notopleural depression  ………………….…  ……………………….…  61

57      Only one stigmatical setae (two may sometimes be present on one side only)   ………..  58

–        More than one stigmatical setae …………………………………….…….………..  59

58        Only basal tarsomere obscurely yellow basally. Usually no setulae posterior to katepisternal setae. Setulae present in notopleural depression. Antennal postpedicellus twice as long as wide, Intercostal section of wing about 3 times as long as cross vein, usually setulae on orbital plate.    ................  obscuritarsis Collin

–         All basal tarsomeres clear yellow, thorax and abdomen with strong bluish black reflections, only dusted on 1st, 2nd and base of third tergites, Notopleural depression bare. Setulae behind strong katepisternal setae Two or three setulae on the orbital plate above the orbital setae,  setulae on scutellar disc few in number, usually no more than 6 …………………………………………………………… (tyrestra ? name not published ) 

59.        Usually at most six stigmatical setae    …………………………………..….…….    60

–          Usually a group of about twelve stigmatical setae. Anterior genal setae can be partly multiserial, orbital plates with at least one setulae. Costa with Intercostal section about 3 times as long as cross vein. Notopleuron with setulae in addition to the two setae. Male genitalia with cerci small and little developed.     …………………   germanica MacGowan

60         Usually a group of about six stigmatical setae. No setulae on notopleura, only the two strong setae. Usually no setulae on scutellar margin anterior to lateral strong setae. Male genitalia with the posterio-ventral projection of surstylus rounded. Apical section of female aculeus without any setulae half way along dorsal surface. .....……………….… stackelbergi Czerny   

–        . Usually only two or three stigmatical setae. Notopleuron usually with setulae (sometimes absent). Setulae on scutellar margin anterior to lateral strong setae. Male genitalia with posterior-ventral projection of surstylus pointet. Apical section of female aculeus with a pair of small setulae half way along dorsal surface. Basal tarsomeres obscurely yellow sometimes darkened above.   …………….………………………………………. albitarsis (Zetterstedt)

61        All basal tarsomeres yellow apical tarsomere black, orbital plates XXXX , one stigmatical setae, no setulae behind the katepisternal setae. Male aedeagus remarkably long and slender, female aculeus.. ……….  ultima  Collin

–          At least the apical two or three tarsomeres darkened on dorsal surface ………..........….. 62

62    Only one stigmatical setae. Intercostal section of wing approximately twice as long as crossvein r-m  ...  63

–          Two or more stigmatical setae. Intercostal section three times as long as crossvein …………………………... 74

63        Basal tarsomeres clear yellow and sometimes basal part of second tarsomere dusky yellow other tarsomeres dark, Calypteres with a broad dark brown margin and long fringe ………………….….… tarsata  Fallen

–          At least basal and second tarsomere yellow, wings in male and female yellowish. Calypteres whitish with brown margin and fringe   …………..........…………………………….   64

 64      Orbital plates with a hair or setulae above orbital setae.  Antennal postpedicellus with basal fifth orange on inner base. Male genitalia; aedeagus only partly divided, with large square basal portion and angular apical part …………………………………………    absenta MacGowan

          Orbital plates bare  ………………………….…………………………………….…….   65

65.     Anterior tibiae with a yellow streak ventrally on apical third. Antennal postpedicellus long and narrow three times as long as deep extending down over mouth edge…………………………………….......... tibialis MacGowan (Tunisia)

–       Anterior tibiae entirelly black. Antennal postpedicellus at most 2.5 times as long as deep  ………………….…  66

66         Males   ....................................……………………………………………….……....   67

–           Females cannot be definitely keyed out in this group as yet.

  67      Genitalia:  surstylus with an obvious posterio-ventral projection which has a recurved tip. ……    68 

  –      If there is a posterio-ventral projection of surstylus it does not have a recurved tip   …..    69

   68       Cerci rather broad and rounded, not heavily chitinised, aedeagus with apical section long, thin and sinuous,   ………………………..…………………………..……  helvetica MacGowan 

    –        Cerci taller and more sinuous with greater chitinisation.  Aedeagus a simple unsegmented J-shape  …………………………………………………………………   vikhrevi MacGowan

69         Surstylus projecting ventrally beyond the epandrium as a rounded process covered with strong recurved black setae. Apical section of aedeagus short and squat, only half the height of the basal section. No setulae posterior to the single strong setae on katepisternum  .…………………………………..………  iberica MacGowan (Spain)  

–          Genitalia not as above  .…………………………………………………..………….. 70

70      Male aedeagus short and broad, only partly divided into two sections  ……………..… gorodkovi Kovalev

–           Male aedeagus longer, obviously in two sections   …………………………………….. 71

71        Apical segment of aedeagus angular (fig X) …………..…. mallochi MacGowan & Rotheray  

–          Apical segment of aedeagus more sinuous   ....................................................................  72

72         Aedeagus with apical section long and slender with a basal recurvement, much longer than basal portion, ……………..  ……………………………….……..     tenuicornis Kovalev

–            Aedeagus shorter and of different shape …………………………………..………   73

73.         Cerci massive and rectangular, Posterio-ventral projection of surstylus short and rounded Aedeagus as Fig Y, …………….......................    caledonica MacGowan and Rotheray 

–        Cerci narrower, Posterio-ventral projection of surstylus large and pointed.  Aedeagus as Fig Z , …………………………………..………………….      serrata MacGowan & Rotheray  

       

74      Male genitalia with posterior-ventral projection of surstylus  large and  rounded  ……...… 75

–          Male genitalia with surstylus projecting ventrally beyond the epandrium but with no large posterio-ventral projection. setulae present on orbital plates, no setulae in notopleural depression, setulae behind strong setae on the katepisternum   ……………………………………………………….……………….  sorocula Hackman

75         Male genitalia with the aedeagus a simple tube - in one piece with no lateral serrations Females cannot be told from L. affinis........……………………………. laxa  Collin

–          Aedeagus jointed, apical part serrated laterally ……………………...   affinis  Malloch 

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith